The Czech Republic is a country of rich scientific and cultural traditions, which has made a great contribution to world science, literature, music and painting. Already entered into con. 18th century Compulsory primary education turned the Czech Republic into a country of universal literacy. Founded in 1348, the first in Central Europe, according to Educationvv, the University of Prague became the leading scientific center in Europe. The first Czech Academy of Sciences—the Czech Royal Society—was founded in 1784. The Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts was opened in 1890, whose glorious traditions are continued by the current Czech Academy of Sciences, founded in 1952 on the initiative of the well-known Czech historian Z. Nejedla. The history of world science includes the names of historians F. Palatsky and P. Safarik, linguists I. Dobrovsky, I. Jungman, J. Kollar, the founder of modern pedagogy Ya.A. Comenius, biologist Ya.E. Purkinje, “Czech Edison” F. Krzhizhik. The award of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1959 to J. Heyrovsky for his discovery of the polarographic method of analysis became international recognition of the achievements of Czech science. Such scientists as O. Wichterle (discovery of artificial contact lenses) and W. Laufberg (invention of the spasioelectrocardiograph) gained world fame.
The Constitution guarantees to all citizens the right to education, which is available and free of charge to every citizen of the country. 174 thousand students study in 24 higher educational institutions. The teaching staff consists of 12.7 thousand teachers, 4203 of them have candidate and doctoral degrees.
Almost every settlement has cultural facilities. There are more than 6,000 public libraries in the country, with a book fund of 40 million volumes and 1.3 million registered readers. The oldest library of the National Museum in Prague, founded in 1818, has a book fund of more than 4 million volumes.
Museum art has a long tradition. There are 325 museums and 49 art galleries in the country (the National Art Gallery in Prague, founded in 1796, the Moravian Gallery in Brno, the Alshova Gallery in Hluboka nad Vltava, etc.), which display collections of works by old and new Czech masters: the founder of the Czech national school paintings by J. Manes, K. Purkyne, J. Navratil, J. Cermak, V. Brozhik, A. Mucha, A. Slavicek, E. Filla, O. Kubin, V. Sleepers, J. Kollarzha.
The classics of Czech literature A. Irasek, B. Nemcova, S. Cech, J. Neruda, J. Vrchlicky, K.G. Mach. In the world literature of the 20th century. Works by K. Chapek, J. Hasek, V. Vanchura, J. Olbracht, B. Hrabal, O. Pavel, M. Kundera are included. The Czech land gave the world wonderful poets: P. Bezruch, J.V. Sladek, M. Florian, V. Nezval, S.K. Neumann, F. Galas, F. Grubin. The poet J. Seifert became the first Czech Nobel Prize in Literature in 1984.
The world musical culture included the names of Czech composers – B. Smetana, A. Dvorak, Z. Fibich, L. Janachka, J. Suk. Since 1946, Prague has hosted the Prague Spring International Music Festival in May, which always opens with B. Smetana’s symphonic cycle My Homeland.
Theater art traditionally plays a significant role in the cultural life of the Czech people. There are 84 state and 27 private theaters in the country, among them the National Theatre, built in 1883 with public donations and which has become a symbol of national revival, drama theaters: Tyla, Na Vinohrady, Za Branay, Chinogerni Club, Na Zabradli, on the stage of which the first theatrical plays by V. Havel, theaters of small forms Semaphore, Laterna Magica.
Czech cinematography has also achieved international recognition, primarily directors of the so-called. new wave: M. Forman, V. Khitilova, I. Menzel, whose film “Trains under strict supervision” according to the script of B. Hrabal in 1967 won the Oscar of the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts, in 1997 the Oscar was awarded to the film of the young director Ya. Sverak according to the script Z. Sverak “Kolya”.
The Czech Republic is a country of unique unique architecture, which represents all European historical styles – Gothic, Czech Baroque, Neoclassicism, Renaissance, Empire, Art Nouveau, Cubism and Constructivism. The country has more than 1497 castles and other historical monuments, 11 cities and attractions included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Fund.
General information about the Czech Republic
The official name is the Czech Republic (Ceska Republika, Czech Republic). Located in Central Europe. The area is 78,864 km2. Population 10.2 million people. (2001). The official language is Czech. The capital is Prague (1.18 million people). Public holidays: May 8 – Day of liberation from fascism (1945), July 5 – Day of the Slavic Enlighteners Cyril and Methodius, July 6 – Day of the burning of master Jan Hus (1415), October 28 – Day of the founding of an independent Czechoslovak state (1918). The monetary unit is the Czech crown.
Member of 59 international organizations, including 51 as the legal successor of Czechoslovakia (1993): UN (since 1945), OSCE (since 1975), IMF (since 1995), OECD (since 1995), WTO (since 1995), etc. May 1, 2004 joined the EU.