Bulgarian music. Bulgarian folk music shows a preference for rhythmic formulas in asymmetrical bars (Bulgarian rhythms), e.g. For example, a 5 ⁄ 8 cycle can be divided into 3 + 2, an 8 ⁄ 8 cycle into 3 + 2 + 3 time values. B. Bartók then gave z. For example, in the »Scherzo alla bulgarese« of his 5th String Quartet (1934) the metric preliminary drawing 4 + 2 + 3 ⁄ 8 instead of 9 ⁄ 8. The bagpipe (gaida), flute (kaval) and violin (gusla) are popular folk instruments.
With Christianity in the 9th century came church chant from Byzantium, which, after national appropriation, was passed on to Russia in the late 10th century. One of the most outstanding masters of Byzantine music (Byzantine culture), Johannes Kukuzeles (probably 14th century), was of Bulgarian descent. The incursion of the Ottomans in the late 14th century interrupted development for centuries. The clerics fled to Romania and Russia (Kiev), where the tradition of Bulgarian chant(»bolgarskij raspjew«), i.e. H. the oldest Church Slavonic chant of the Orthodox Church, which has remained alive to the present day.
An independent national musical culture only emerged after the Bulgarian independence was regained in 1878. The first music school was founded in 1904, the opera house in 1908, and the state music academy in Sofia in 1922. The first generation of Bulgarian composers and folk song researchers, Dobri Christow (* 1875, † 1941), Georgi Atanassow (* 1881, † 1931), sought to catch up with international developments, Petko Stajnow (* 1896, † 1974) represented late Romanticism, Pantscho Wladigerow (* 1899, † 1978), Ljubomir Pipkow (* 1904, † 1974) and Marin Goleminow (* 1908, † 2000) the folklorism in the wake of B. Bartók, while Wesselin Stojanow (* 1902, † 1969) joined the Vienna School. Younger composers, some of whom have also made a name for themselves abroad, are among others. Lasar Nikolow (* 1922, † 2005), Alexandar Raitschew (* 1922, † 2003), Konstantin Iliew (* 1924, † 1988), Georgi (Iwanow) Tutew (* 1924, † 1994), Dimitar Christow (* 1933)and Wassil Kazandschiew (* 1934).
For more than 45 years, until 1989, the communist rulers prevented Bulgarian musicians and musicologists from gaining experience with contemporary music in western countries. The performance of new, but politically unpopular music was also made impossible. Performances of this kind were only possible within the framework of festivals organized by the Association of Bulgarian Composers, Musicologists and Lecturers (founded in 1947). The younger composers who appeared after the Second World War include Konstantin Iliev, Wasil Kasandjiev, Simeon Pitonkov (* 1927) and Stefan Dragostinov (* 1948). To promote contemporary Bulgarian works, the first ensemble for new music “Musica Nova” was founded in Sofia in 1989.
Ruse , Ruse, city in northern Bulgaria, capital of the Ruse region, 45 m above sea level, on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the Romanian city of Giurgiu, (2018) 142,900 residents.
University (founded in 1954 as a college), historical museum, natural history museum, art gallery, theater and opera house; Industrial center with shipyard, oil refinery, chemical industry, agricultural machinery and equipment manufacturing, metal processing, automotive supply, textile, clothing and food industries; important border crossing in transit traffic (since 1954 rail and road bridge); largest Bulgarian port on the Danube, airport.
Buildings from the 19th and 20th centuries in the late Viennese Baroque style characterize the old town. Churches of all Christian faiths are represented as well as the numerous mosques. In the vicinity there are cave churches with significant frescoes (14th century; so-called frescoes by Ivanovo). The 204 m high television tower with viewing platform is the tallest structure in Bulgaria. Since Bulgaria became a member of the EU (2007), fundamental urban redevelopment began. New buildings such as the Kaneff Center (conference center; 2013) or the Bulstrad Arena (sports hall; 2015) were also completed.
Russian, in the 1st century BC Established as a Roman Danube port (Sexaginta Prista), destroyed in the 6th century and mentioned again at the beginning of the 15th century as a Turkish fortress (Rustschuk), it had an important bridge function in the Russo-Turkish wars of the 19th century. It was one of the centers of the Bulgarian national movement.
Varna, Varna, 1949–56 Stalin, city in Bulgaria, on the Black Sea, 35 m above sea level, (2018) 336 500 residents, capital of the Varna region (3 820 km 2, 471 300 residents).
Economic and cultural center; Orthodox bishopric, TU, economic and medical university, naval academy and other higher educational institutions, theater, archaeological (with gold treasure), naval, ethnographic, etc. Museums, zoological garden; Trade and financial center, shipbuilding, repair yard, mechanical engineering, electrotechnical, chemical, textile, clothing and food industries; Deep-sea port (including a railway ferry connection to the Ukrainian port of Illichivsk); international Airport. North-east of Varna the tourist centers Druzhba and Golden Sands.
Remains of thermal baths (2nd – 4th centuries) and fortifications from Roman times; Foundations of a basilica of the 5th century (floor mosaics 4th century). New Byzantine Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (1886).
Varna, in the 6th century BC Founded as a colony of Odessos by Greeks from Miletus, it was conquered by the Bulgarians around 680 AD. From 972 to the end of the 12th century it was Byzantine, 1391–1878 Ottoman. – A burial ground with over 280 graves of the Copper Age Karanowo VI culture (Karanowo) in the area of Lake Warna west of the city yielded numerous gold finds with a total weight of 6.5 kg as grave goods: tiaras, arm rings, fittings, earrings, animal figures, ornate weapons studded with gold sheet, as well as ceramics and copper tools. The gold finds are the world’s oldest precious metal finds (around 4200 BC); Together with the finds made of solid copper, they prove the systematic and organized exploitation and processing of native ore deposits. The copper mines of Ai Bunar (Bulgaria) and Rudna Glava (Eastern Serbia) at the same time will be discussed in this context. The burial ground documents a hierarchically structured society that is already based on division of labor and has a political and religious upper class,
On November 10, 1444, an Ottoman army under Murad II won over a crusader army under Wladislaw III near Varna . of Poland and Hungary who fell here. This largely cleared the way for the Ottomans to take Constantinople (1453) and occupy Serbia (1459).