The date on which the Bantu group of Becuans entered the territory of Botswana is controversial; it seems certain, however, that he had already settled there in the century. XVI-XVII. The country, whose history was characterized by intertribal struggles for centuries, had to suffer in the century. XIX invasions and raids by the powerful Zulus. Only after 1880 a great leader of the Mangwato, Khama III, managed to unify the various tribes under his authority; after a few years the country, the scene of rivalries between the British, Germans and Boers, was placed (1884 and 1885) under the British protectorate, also following the insistence of Cecil Rhodes who had conceived the grandiose project of territorial unity from Cape Town to Cairo. The territory to the S of the Molopo River was, a few months later, erected as a colony with the name of British Bechuanaland and in 1895 was annexed to the Cape Colony, while the territory to the N (between Molopo and Limpopo) in 1906 was placed under the dependence of the British High Commissioner for South Africa. The protectorate received its first Constitution in 1960, modified 5 years later in view of the granting of independence, which was granted on 30 September 1966; on that occasion the new Republic assumed its current name. With sir Seretse Khama, president of the Republic since 1966 and re-elected in 1974, Botswana, despite its geographical and economic dependence on the South African Republic, adopted a line of autonomy towards the government of Pretoria, supporting the cause of Namibia. NE neighboring Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), continued to advocate for the transfer of power from Ian Smith’s white minorityto the black majority and also established diplomatic relations with Moscow and Beijing. After the death of Seretse Khama (1980), Quett Ketumile Joni Masire (in office until 1998), of the Botswana Democratic Party (BDP, a party to which former president Khama also belonged) was elected president. Masire continued the policy undertaken by his predecessor by implementing a cautious opening towards the West, democratic reforms and a strong condemnation of racial discrimination; moreover, like Khama, he too managed to accurately manage the huge proceeds deriving from the diamond market, reinvesting them in infrastructures, schools and health. This makes Botswana a special case in the troubled South African region. In the nineties, thanks to the end of apartheid and the new political framework, relations with neighboring South Africa also improved. In 1998, President Masire retired to private life and his deputy Festus Mogae was chosen as his successor. With the BDP he gave birth to a new government, reconfirmed in the 2004 legislative elections. Mogae, in view of the 2008 presidential elections, withdrew, leaving the office to Seretse Khama Ian Kama, son of Seretse Kama (officially elected in 2009). In October 2009 the elections for the renewal of the parliament took place, won by the BDP (45 seats out of 57).
CULTURE: GENERAL INFORMATION
Visit baglib for Botswana the kingdom of the elephants. The residents of the country retain a strong national identity and have great confidence in their government and in their homeland. Their history, which testifies to their clever ability to dodge the worst aspects of colonization, has made them proud and proud of themselves. The extraordinary wealth of diamonds has also allowed large investments to be made in education, public health and infrastructure. The social roles of each and the kgotla tradition remain well established (the characteristic meeting and meeting place of the village where issues are debated with the greatest mutual respect) strengthen a well-defined and cohesive social structure. The most interesting event is the Maitisong Festival, held in the capital in the months between March and April, characterized by traditional songs, dances and performances. The Kalahari desert is home to the only site in the country designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, Tsodilo (2001); it is one of the highest concentrations of rock art found in the world, so much so that it deserves the name of “Louvre of the desert”: in about 10 km², in fact, there are about 4500 drawings. Millet and sorghum are the basis of the main dishes, to which corn is rapidly joining; morama, a large tuber that grows underground and is also a source of water, and the large caterpillars that feed on the leaves of a tree called mopane: they are fried or roasted on the grill.