Austria Painting, Graphics and Arts After 1945

Austria Painting, Graphics and Arts

The year 1945 did not mean a new beginning. Until the 1960s, teachers at the Vienna Academy were dominated by representatives of objective, moderate modernism (H. Boeckl, AP Gütersloh, J. Dobrowsky, S. Pauser and others). The post-war avant-garde initially found itself in the Vienna Art Club (1947–59, co-founded by C. Unger and Curt Stenvert, * 1920, † 1992) and based on different Western models. In the federal provinces, for the time being, few artists broke new ground. B. Margret Bilger-Breustedt (* 1904, † 1971) with glass windows and Fritz Fröhlich (* 1910, † 2001) i.a. with frescoes. In dealing with the surrealism that made Vienna School of Fantastic Realism, whose great environment and Helmut Leherb (* 1933, † 1997) and in its beginnings Karl Korab (* 1937) are be counted among. The controversial judged F. Hundertwasser, as a painter and architect, became an apologist for a supposedly natural life.

The »Galerie next Sankt Stephan« in Vienna, founded in 1954 by the Catholic clergyman Otto Mauer (* 1907, † 1973), promoted v. a. the representatives of informal art (A. Rainer, Wolfgang Hollegha, * 1929; J. Mikl; Peter Bischof, * 1934; M. Prachensky and others). After early informal work, M. Lassnig turned to figural representations mostly of his own physical sensitivities; her work received international recognition. The work of Max Weiler (* 1910, † 2001) is of high rankzu, whose path led from expressive representationalism (frescoes in Innsbruck, Hungerburg, 1945–47) to sensitive, spiritual abstractions. From the 1950s onwards, inter alia, the object broke away. also Theo Braun (* 1922, † 2006), Hans Bischoffshausen (* 1927, † 1987), Franz Grabmayr (* 1927, † 2015), Johann Fruhmann (* 1928, † 1985), Mario Declava (* 1930, † 1979) and Hans Staudacher (* 1923, † 2021), who was influenced by tachism. Constructivists such as Hildegard Joos (* 1909, † 2005), Kurt Ingerl (* 1935, † 1999) and Helga Philipp (* 1939, † 2002), structuralists such as Hermann Painitz (* 1938) and Marc Adrian (* 1930. † 2008), also G. Rühm and Heinz Gappmayr (* 1925, † 2010), who operate pictorially with words and language, remained loners. Kiki Kogelnik (* 1935, † 1997) sought contact with Pop Art. The versatile Oswald Oberhuber (* 1931, † 2020) propagated »permanent change in art«. With radical body and painting actions, in which the conventional concept of art and social norms were called into question, Viennese Actionism made an important contribution to the international art of the 1960s and 1970s (including G. Brus, H. Nitsch; Otto Muehl, * 1925, † 2013; Rudolf Schwarzkogler, * 1940, † 1969). Actionism co-founder A. Frohner dealt with Art brut in the period that followed. CL Attersee became a successful interpreter of opulent, sensual associations. Within the stylistic pluralism of the 1960s, realists with a political-social orientation also asserted themselves (G. Eisler; A. Hrdlicka; Fritz Martinz, * 1924, † 2002; Rudolf Schönwald, * 1928), but also figural individualists such as Giselbert Hoke (* 1927, † 2015), Gottfried Kumpf (* 1930), Florentina Pakosta (* 1933) and Max Peintner (* 1937).

According to Youremailverifier, Austria has made a special contribution to Art brut since the 1960s. Supervised by the psychiatrist L. Navratil, patients at the Gugging Psychiatric Clinic (near Klosterneuburg) were able to develop as “state-bound” artists. a. Johann Hauser (* 1926, † 1996) and August Walla (* 1936, † 2001).

A carefree, stylistically inconsistent reaction to the rigid positions followed in 1968 by the group »Realities« (Wolfgang Herzig, * 1941; Martha Jungwirth, * 1940; Kurt Kocherscheidt, * 1943, † 1992; Peter Pongratz, * 1940; Franz Ringel, * 1940, † 2011; Robert Zeppel-Sperl, * 1944, † 2005). Different aspects of objectivity obtained even with Eduard Angeli (* 1942), Heinz Stangl (* 1942, † 2008), Ulrich Gansert (* 1942), Franz Zadrazil (* 1942, † 2005), Walter Schmögner (* 1943), Gerhard Gutruf (* 1944), Peter Sengl (* 1945) and Leander Kaiser (* 1947) are of importance again. At the same time, Jürgen Messensee (* 1936), Drago J. Prelog (* 1939), Karl Hikade (* 1942) and Friedrich Danielis (* 1944) found subjective positions in abstraction.

Graphics are given particular weight, for example by P. Flora and the cartoonists Ironimus (pseudonym of Peichl), Erich Sokol (* 1933, † 2003), M. Deix and Gerhard Haderer (* 1951). With K. Moldovan, Rudolf Hradil (* 1925, † 2007) and Gottfried Salzmann (* 1943) the watercolor dominates, the drawing with K. Absolon, Karl Anton Fleck (* 1928, † 1983), W. Pichler and Othmar Zechyr (* 1938, † 1996). Maximilian Melcher (* 1922, † 2002) was considered an important graphics teacher; as experienced printmakers are Heinrich Heuer (* 1934), Erich Steininger (* 1939, † 2015), Herwig Zens (* 1943) and Ernst Skricka (* 1946). The versatile Tone Fink (* 1944) and the hyperrealist G. Helnwein also started out as graphic designers.

Around 1980, neo-expressive tendencies (New Painting, New Wilde) came to the fore in European painting. The Austrian representatives, whose spectrum ranges from gestural abstraction to extreme realism, include Siegfried Anzinger (* 1953), Herbert Brandl (* 1959), Gunter Damisch (* 1958, † 2016), Hubert Scheibl (* 1952), Hubert Schmalix (* 1952), Otto Zitko (* 1959), furthermore Erwin Bohatsch (* 1951), Josef Kern (* 1953), Alfred Klinkan (* 1950, † 1994), Alois Mosbacher (* 1954), Roman Scheidl (* 1949), Walter Vopava (* 1948) and Thomas Reinhold (* 1953). Around 1985, artists with geometric (“Neo Geo”), minimalist or conceptual approaches turned against this »sensual«, often narrative painting. Ernst Caramelle (* 1952), Heinrich Dunst (* 1955), Jakob Gasteiger (* 1953), G. Rockenschaub and Heimo Zobernig (* 1958). Others like Franz Graf (* 1954), Birgit Jürgenssen (* 1949, † 2003), Brigitte Kowanz (* 1957), Günther Selichar (* 1960) richly combined performance, installations, object art and photo elements with conventional techniques. The variety of positions becomes almost unmanageable due to the reception of the new media (video, photography, computer, internet; media art). Peter Weibel (* 1944), who also worked as a theorist, teacher and curator, and Valie Export, who, like F. Pezold, stood out with feminist self-portrayals, paved the way for this. Video installations were made by Richard Kriesche (* 1940), Gottfried Bechtold (* 1947), Zelko Wiener (* 1953), Gudrun Bielz (* 1954), Ruth Schnell (* 1956), Leo Schatzl (* 1958) and Richard Hoeck (* 1965). Peter Kogler’s (* 1959) computer-generated “super wallpapers” assert themselves in dialogue with architecture (e.g. Graz, Hauptbahnhof, 2003). Christine and Irene Hohenbüchler (* 1964) do cross-media work for social »problem groups«. Despite various stylistic and content-related points of view, there is currently a trend towards objectivity in painting (Walter Obholzer, * 1953; Johanna Kandl, * 1954; the team Markus Muntean [* 1962] and Adi Rosenblum [* 1962]; Maja Vukoje, * 1969; Elke Krystufek, * 1970).

Austria Painting, Graphics and Arts